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International Poster Journal of Dentistry and Oral Medicine



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Int Poster J Dent Oral Med 4 (2002), No. 3     15. Sep. 2002

Int Poster J Dent Oral Med 2002, Vol 4 No 3, Poster 135

Microleakage of class I composites with different base materials

Language: English

Authors: PD Dr. Thomas Pioch1, Daniel Kraft1, Prof. Dr. Franklin Garcia-Godoy2, Dr. Ulrich Koke3, Prof. Dr. Dr. Hans Jörg Staehle1, PD Dr. Christof Dörfer1
1Universitätsklinikum Heidelberg, Poliklinik für Zahnerhaltungskunde
2Tufts University at Boston
3Poliklinik für Zahnärztliche Prothetik, Heidelberg



To test the effect of different base materials on marginal quality of composite restorations after load cycling in vitro. 

Materials and Methods

Standardized Class I cavities were prepared in 110 extracted human molars. The teeth were randomly assigned to 10 groups (n=11 in each group). Cavities of 8 groups were filled with composite (Tetric ceram) using different base materials or cotton as negative control. Restorations of three more groups were restored without base materials using a composite, a compomer or an ormocer, respectively. All specimens were subjected to a thermomechanical cycling process of 1000 stress cycles (0/100N) and 1000 temperature cycles (5 °C / 55 °C). After dye penetration with rhodamin, the teeth were embedded, sectioned and examined by conventional stereomicroscopy (SMi) and by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM).

   Grading of the dye penetration:
   0: max 0.1 mm
   1: max to enamel-dentin junction
   2: max to bottom of cavity
   3: including bottom of cavity 


With both microscopic methods used, significant differences between the experimental groups were found (Kruskal-Wallis-Test: SMi p=0.02, CLSM p=0.001). Comparing the two microscopical methods it can be stated, that CLSM is more sensitive than SMi. Highest penetration values were detected at the negative control (group J, mean rank: SMi 139, CLSM 161). Under SMi lowest values were found for the all compomer restoration (group F, mean rank: 83) and for one restoration with a glasionomer used as base material (group E, mean rank: 95). With CLSM lowest values were found for the combination of glasionomer and composite (group C, mean rank: 84) and for the all ormocer restorations (group I, mean rank: 93). 

Group Restorations  Mean rank of penetration 
   Base materials   Restoration 
 Bonding agents   Stereomicroscope  Confocal Laser
 Scanning Microscope 
A Harvard Cement Tetric Ceram Excite 92 108
B Ketac-Bond Tetric Ceram Excite 99 95
C GC Fuji IX GP Tetric Ceram Excite 124 84
D Ketac-Molar Tetric Ceram Excite 125 124
E Compoglass Tetric Ceram Excite 95 99
F Dyract AP P&NT 83 95
G Tetric Ceram Excite 126 125
H Tetric Flow Tetric Ceram Excite 103 122
I Admira Admira Bond 118 93
J Cotton Tetric Ceram Excite 139 161
        p = 0,020 p = 0,001
Table 1: Test groups and their mean ranks of penetration.


It is concluded that variations of individual base materials might influence the marginal characteristics of Class I composite restorations. 

Fig. 1a: Frequency of dye penetration depths (stereomicroscopy)   Fig. 1b: Frequency of dye penetration depths (confocal laser scanning microscopy)

Fig. 2: CLSM image in reflection (left) and reflection (right) mode from a specimen of group C. A dye penetration between restorative material and enamel did not occur (here grade 0). E = embedding resin.

Fig. 3: CLSM image in reflection (left) and reflection (right) mode from a specimen of group J. A dye penetration (arrows) between restorative material and enamel occurred (here grade 1).

Fig. 4: CLSM image in reflection (left) and reflection (right) mode from a specimen of group I (negativ control). A dye penetration (arrows) between restorative material and enamel occurred (here grade 2).

This poster was submitted by PD Dr. Thomas Pioch.

Correspondence address:
PD Dr. Thomas Pioch
Universitätsklinikum Heidelberg
Poliklinik für Zahnerhaltungskunde
Im Neuenheimer Feld 400
D-69120 Heidelberg