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Int Poster J Dent Oral Med 13 (2011), No. 4     15. Dec. 2011

Int Poster J Dent Oral Med 2011, Vol 13 No 4, Poster 568

Dental Caries

An ever expanding horizon

Language: English
 

Authors:
Dr. Abhishek Jahagirdar, PG student, Dr. Ahmed Mujib B. R., Prof. and Head, Dr. Pavan G. Kulkarni, Assist. Prof.,
Dept of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Bapuji Dental College and Hospital, Davangere, Karnataka, India

Date/Event/Venue:
June 16th-17th, 2010
10th National Post Graduate Convention of Indian Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathologists
Club Mahindra Holiday Resorts, Coorg, Karnataka, India

Poster Award
First Prize

Introduction

Dental caries continues to be a common chronic disease among various population groups. Patient care can be improved with prevention, detection, reversal and management at the earliest stage. Accuracy in the above mentioned areas would permit targeted preventive treatment, thereby significantly improving dental health and reducing the need for expensive treatment. The latest improvements and research in these core areas of dental caries have been brought out in this poster which when adopted by the clinicians will definitely help in eliminating the carious process in its bud stage.
 

Objectives

Current techniques do not have sufficient sensitivity and specificity in prevention, detection, reversal and management of dental caries. We hereby, present with latest research technologies with higher sensitivity and specificity.
 

Material and Methods

Searched articles from the Pubmed database and Dental Clinics of North America for latest researches, reviews and clinical trials. Main search involved mesh terms associated with caries, caries research, caries vaccine etc. additional search involved Bluetooth device, diagnodent, gene therapy, probiotics etc as well as relevant searching of references of all the retrieved articles for possible inclusion.
 

Results

Caries prevention
The latest methods in caries prevention are the Bluetooth device which sends signals to the mobile device when the pH<5.5, gene therapy modifying the bacterial genetic pattern, probiotics overgrowing the pathogens, nanorobots fighting the pathogens and the use antibacterial composites.

Fig 1: Bluetooth device Fig 2: Gene therapy using adenovirus vector
Fig 3: Probiotic bacteria Fig 4: Dental nanorobots
Fig 5: Plant extracts Fig 6: Antibacterial composites

Caries diagnosis
The latest in diagnosis are the optical coherence tomography, polarized raman spectroscopy studying the composition, crystallinity and demineralization, impedence spectroscopy measuring the impedence to current, laser fluorescence seen in carious lesions, electronic caries monitor measuring the resistance of enamel and near infrared imaging showing high specificity of detection for caries.

Fig 7: Optical Coherence Tomography Fig 8: Principle of Polarized Raman Spectroscopy
Fig 9: Impedence spectroscopy Fig 10: Laser fluorescence
Fig 11: Electronic caries monitor Fig 12: Near infrared imaging

Caries reversal
Caries reversal using the ozone which destroys the bacteria, plant extracts reversing the demineralization, nanosolutions promoting better bonding, lasers reversing caries, resin infiltration for early pit and fissure caries and tooth mousse pastes which help in early remineralization are the methods on the horizon which are proving themselves very effective.

Fig 13: Laser apparatus Fig 14: Process of resin infiltration
Fig 15: Tooth mousse Fig 16: Ozone machine
Fig 17: Nanosolution Fig 18: Micro invasive procedure

Caries management
Air abrasive tooth preparation with a flow of abrasive particles at high speed, bioengineering the natural tooth invivo or invitro, ultrasonics for minimal and effective tooth removal, micro invasive procedurespromoting bonding, bonded sapphire replacing the enamel giving the natural enamel the strength of ceramics and waterlase which is a combination of water and laser for better hydrodynamic efficiency are some of the future trends in caries management.

Fig 19: Bonded sapphire replacing enamel Fig 20: Waterlase apparatus
Fig 21: Air abrasion apparatus Fig 22: Bioengineering
 
Fig 23: Ultrasonic handpiece
 
 

Conclusions

Exploring these various future technologies by continued research and bringing them into dental practice shows great promise to erase dental caries.
 

Literature

  • Kolahi J, Fazilati M.Bluetooth technology for prevention of dental caries.Med Hypotheses (2009), doi:10.1016/j.mehy.2009.04.055.
  • Pitts NB. Implementation. Improving Caries Detection, Assessment, Diagnosis and Monitoring.Monogr Oral Sci. 2009;21:199-208.
  • Longbottom C, Ekstrand K, Zero D, Kambara M.Novel Preventive Treatment Options.Monogr Oral Sci. 2009;21:156-163.
  • Afolabi OC, Ogunsola FT, Coker AO. Susceptibility of cariogenic Streptococcus mutans to extracts of Garcinia kola, Hibiscus sabdariffa, and Solanumamericanum.West Afr J Med. 2008 Oct;27(4):230-3.
  • Llena C, Forner L, Baca P.Anticariogenicity of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate: a review of the literature.
  • Hamilton JC, Gregory WA, Valentine JB.DIAGNOdent measurements and correlation with the depth and volume of minimally invasive cavity preparations.Oper Dent. 2006 May-Jun;31(3):291-6.
  • Chalmers JM.Minimal intervention dentistry: a new focus for dental hygiene.Dent Today. 2008 Apr;27(4):132-136.
  • Mount GJ.A new paradigm for operative dentistry.Aust Dent J. 2007 Dec;52(4):264-70.
     

This Poster was submitted by Dr. Abhishek Jahagirdar.
 

Correspondence address:
Dr. Abhishek Jahagirdar
Bapuji Dental College and Hospital
Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology
Davangere-577 004
Karnataka, India