Int Poster J Dent Oral Med 2008, Vol 10 No 01, Poster 390
Screening of Periodontal Pathogens in Infants and Children
MUDr. Kristína Musilová, Stomatological Clinic, Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Brno
Prof. MUDr. Martina Kukletová, CSc., Stomatological Clinic, Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Brno
MUDr. Tatjana Janatová, Institute of Dental Research, 1st Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague
Prof. MUDr. Zdenek Broukal, CSc. Institute of Dental Research, 1st Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague
MUDr. Lenka Zácková, Children Teaching Hospital, Brno
13 - 17 June 2007
The 21the Congress of International Association of Paediatric Dentistry
Hong Kong Special Administrative region China
Objectives: Increasing number of evidence has shown the association of
periodontal pathogens present in periodontal environment and periodontal
pathologies in adults while so far existing data on the periodontal
microbiology of infants and children have been limited. Some genomic
microbiological studies published in the past few years have shown that some
periodontopathic bacteria can be detected in saliva or in dental plaque i)
even in infancy (Umeda et al. 2004), ii) in periodontally healthy children
(Sakai et al. 2007) and iii) that their presence in childrens' mouths may be
the result of intrafamiliar transmission (Ooshima et al. 2003). On the other
hand the studies site specific prevalence of periodontopathic bacteria
related to periodontal health and disease in children have brought so far
some confusing results. The longitudinal study of 60 Brasilian children with
mixed dentition did not show any significant differences related to gingival
index score (Sakai et al. 2007) while other study from Japan showed some
positive correlations between detection frequency of periodontopathic
bacteria and the scores of both plaque and gingival indices (Ooshima et al.
The aim of this study was to identify the known periodontal pathogens in
infants with ECC and children from the ELSPAC project (European Longitudinal
Study of Pregnancy and Childhood).
Material and Methods
Thirty-seven infants (mean age 4.06, SE=1.39) were hospitalized in the
Children Teaching Hospital for the dental treatment under general
anesthesia. The children (mean age 14.57, SE=0.83) from the ELSPAC project
were clinically examined for dental, and periodontal status, hygiene and
orthodontic anomalies. The sulcular fluid samples from both bleeding and
healthy gingival sites were taken. The fluid from gingival sulcus was
absorbed to endodontic paper points (ISO standard 40) and processed in the
ParoCheck® kits (Greiner Bio-one GmBH, D). Bacterial species were
identified by means of the hybridization in situ method using 16S rRNA
fragment and highly conserved primer labelled by fluorophore (Cy5).
Hybridized samples were labelled by strain specific DNA-sondes and
identified according to ParoCheck®Report-Software. The findings on
gingival bleeding and healthy sites were compared (chí² test;
Infants - frequency in bleeding gingival sites (%): A.
actinomycetemcomitans (AA) 30.2, P. intermedia (PI) 7.0, F.
nucleatum (FN) 51.2, T. denticola (TD) 9.3, T. forsythensis
(TF) 2.3, P. nigrescens (PN) 7.0, all significantly more
frequently than in healthy sites (P<0.025). children - frequency in bleeding
gingival sites (%): P.gingivalis (PG)37.0, A.
actinomycetemcomitans (AA) 75.9, P. intermedia (PI) 81.5, F.
nucleatum (FN) 58.3, T.denticola (TD) 1.9, T.forsytensis
(TF) 7.4, P. nigrescens (PN) 12.0, all but FN and TF
significantly more frequently than in healthy sites (P<0.025).
|Oral pathogens in infants affected by ECC
||Oral pathogens in ELSPAC group Pairs : inflammation-control
|Oral pathogens in ELSPAC group, Total count
||Oral pathogens in ELSPAC group, Total count, comparison of contol sites
The above microbiological findings showed the significant correlations
between the detection frequency of some periodontopathic bacteria and
gingival pathology in both infants and children. The spectrum and the
frequency of periodontopathic bacteria detected in infants was narrower than
that seen in children and some of them (PG) have not been found in any of
infants examined. It is in accordance with findings of Kimura et al. (2002)
that found the colonization of many putative periodontopathic microorganisms
to occur quite early in childhood without clinical signs of periodontal
disease however, colonization by P. gingivalis was not detected in
periodontally healthy preschool children. Supported by grant IGA Min. of
Health No. NR/8394-3 and by Project 1M0528 from the Ministry of
- Kimura S, Ooshima T, Takiguchi M, Sasaki Y, Amano A, Morisaki I, Hamada S. Periodontopathic bacterial infection in childhood. J Periodontol. 2002 Jan;73(1):20-6.
- Ooshima T, Nishiyama N, Hou B, Tamura K, Amano A, Kusumoto A, Kimura S. Occurrence of periodontal bacteria in healthy children: a 2-year longitudinal study. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2003 Dec;31(6):417-25.
- Sakai VT, Campos MR, Machado MA, Lauris JR, Greene AS, Santos CF. Prevalence of four putative periodontopathic bacteria in saliva of a group of Brazilian children with mixed dentition: 1-year longitudinal study. Int J Paediatr Dent. 2007 May;17(3):192-9.
- Umeda M, Miwa Z, Takeuchi Y, Ishizuka M, Huang Y, Noguchi K, Tanaka M, Takagi Y, Ishikawa I. The distribution of periodontopathic bacteria among Japanese children and their parents. J Periodontal Res. 2004 Dec;39(6):398-404.
This Poster was submitted by MUDr. Kristína Musilová.
MUDr. Kristína Musilová
656 91 Brno