International Poster Journal of Dentistry and Oral Medicine



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Int Poster J Dent Oral Med 10 (2008), No. 1     15. Mar. 2008

Int Poster J Dent Oral Med 2008, Vol 10 No 01, Poster 390

Screening of Periodontal Pathogens in Infants and Children

Language: English

MUDr. Kristína Musilová, Stomatological Clinic, Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Brno
Prof. MUDr. Martina Kukletová, CSc., Stomatological Clinic, Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Brno
MUDr. Tatjana Janatová, Institute of Dental Research, 1st Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague
Prof. MUDr. Zdenek Broukal, CSc. Institute of Dental Research, 1st Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague
MUDr. Lenka Zácková, Children Teaching Hospital, Brno
Czech Republic

13 - 17 June 2007
The 21the Congress of International Association of Paediatric Dentistry
Hong Kong Special Administrative region China


Objectives: Increasing number of evidence has shown the association of periodontal pathogens present in periodontal environment and periodontal pathologies in adults while so far existing data on the periodontal microbiology of infants and children have been limited. Some genomic microbiological studies published in the past few years have shown that some periodontopathic bacteria can be detected in saliva or in dental plaque i) even in infancy (Umeda et al. 2004), ii) in periodontally healthy children (Sakai et al. 2007) and iii) that their presence in childrens' mouths may be the result of intrafamiliar transmission (Ooshima et al. 2003). On the other hand the studies site specific prevalence of periodontopathic bacteria related to periodontal health and disease in children have brought so far some confusing results. The longitudinal study of 60 Brasilian children with mixed dentition did not show any significant differences related to gingival index score (Sakai et al. 2007) while other study from Japan showed some positive correlations between detection frequency of periodontopathic bacteria and the scores of both plaque and gingival indices (Ooshima et al. 2003).


The aim of this study was to identify the known periodontal pathogens in infants with ECC and children from the ELSPAC project (European Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood).

Material and Methods

Thirty-seven infants (mean age 4.06, SE=1.39) were hospitalized in the Children Teaching Hospital for the dental treatment under general anesthesia. The children (mean age 14.57, SE=0.83) from the ELSPAC project were clinically examined for dental, and periodontal status, hygiene and orthodontic anomalies. The sulcular fluid samples from both bleeding and healthy gingival sites were taken. The fluid from gingival sulcus was absorbed to endodontic paper points (ISO standard 40) and processed in the ParoCheck® kits (Greiner Bio-one GmBH, D). Bacterial species were identified by means of the hybridization in situ method using 16S rRNA fragment and highly conserved primer labelled by fluorophore (Cy5). Hybridized samples were labelled by strain specific DNA-sondes and identified according to ParoCheck®Report-Software. The findings on gingival bleeding and healthy sites were compared (chí² test; P=0.05).

Oral pathogens


Infants - frequency in bleeding gingival sites (%): A. actinomycetemcomitans (AA) 30.2, P. intermedia (PI) 7.0, F. nucleatum (FN) 51.2, T. denticola (TD) 9.3, T. forsythensis (TF) 2.3, P. nigrescens (PN) 7.0, all significantly more frequently than in healthy sites (P<0.025). children - frequency in bleeding gingival sites (%): P.gingivalis (PG)37.0, A. actinomycetemcomitans (AA) 75.9, P. intermedia (PI) 81.5, F. nucleatum (FN) 58.3, T.denticola (TD) 1.9, T.forsytensis (TF) 7.4, P. nigrescens (PN) 12.0, all but FN and TF significantly more frequently than in healthy sites (P<0.025).

Oral pathogens in infants affected by ECC Oral pathogens in ELSPAC group Pairs : inflammation-control

Oral pathogens in ELSPAC group, Total count Oral pathogens in ELSPAC group, Total count, comparison of contol sites


The above microbiological findings showed the significant correlations between the detection frequency of some periodontopathic bacteria and gingival pathology in both infants and children. The spectrum and the frequency of periodontopathic bacteria detected in infants was narrower than that seen in children and some of them (PG) have not been found in any of infants examined. It is in accordance with findings of Kimura et al. (2002) that found the colonization of many putative periodontopathic microorganisms to occur quite early in childhood without clinical signs of periodontal disease however, colonization by P. gingivalis was not detected in periodontally healthy preschool children. Supported by grant IGA Min. of Health No. NR/8394-3 and by Project 1M0528 from the Ministry of Education


  • Kimura S, Ooshima T, Takiguchi M, Sasaki Y, Amano A, Morisaki I, Hamada S. Periodontopathic bacterial infection in childhood. J Periodontol. 2002 Jan;73(1):20-6.
  • Ooshima T, Nishiyama N, Hou B, Tamura K, Amano A, Kusumoto A, Kimura S. Occurrence of periodontal bacteria in healthy children: a 2-year longitudinal study. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2003 Dec;31(6):417-25.
  • Sakai VT, Campos MR, Machado MA, Lauris JR, Greene AS, Santos CF. Prevalence of four putative periodontopathic bacteria in saliva of a group of Brazilian children with mixed dentition: 1-year longitudinal study. Int J Paediatr Dent. 2007 May;17(3):192-9.
  • Umeda M, Miwa Z, Takeuchi Y, Ishizuka M, Huang Y, Noguchi K, Tanaka M, Takagi Y, Ishikawa I. The distribution of periodontopathic bacteria among Japanese children and their parents. J Periodontal Res. 2004 Dec;39(6):398-404.

This Poster was submitted by MUDr. Kristína Musilová.

Correspondence address:
MUDr. Kristína Musilová
Stomatological Clinic
Medical Faculty
Masaryk University Pekarská 53
656 91 Brno
Czech republic