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Int Poster J Dent Oral Med 6 (2004), No. 2     15. June 2004

Int Poster J Dent Oral Med 2004, Vol 6 No 02, Poster 222

Caries Experience in 8-, 12- and 15-year old Westphalian Children from 1990 to 2001

Language: English

Authors:
Dr. Helga Senkel,
Gesundheitsamt Schwelm des Ennepe-Ruhr-Kreises
Prof. Dr. med. dent. Roswitha Heinrich-Weltzien,
Dr. med. dent. Jan Kühnisch,
Prof. Dr. Lutz Stößer,
Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Poliklinik für Präventive Zahnheilkunde

Date/Event/Venue:
July, 3-6th, 2003
ORCA 2003
Konstanz/Germany

Objectives

The aims of the study were to evaluate the prevalence of dental caries in the permanent dentition in 8-, 12- and 15-year-old children attending different schools in the Ennepe-Ruhr-District (EN), Westphalia, in 2001, and to compare the prevalence of caries in these age groups with those found in previous surveys in 1990 and 1995.

Material and Methods

  • A stratified proportionate random sampling design was used with the size of schools and gender as the main stratifying factors
    (table 1).
  Age group
  8 12 15
1990 456 497 486
1995 378 392 405
2001 570 755 656
Table 1: Number of subjects examined in 1990, 1995 and 2001.
  • For the 1990, 1995 and 2001 survey clinical examinations were caried out by the same dentist (H.S.).
  • Caries was diagnosed at the cavitation level (WHO 1987).
  • The DMFT was calculated (SAS data base) and comparisons were made (Tukeys student range test; p value: 5%).

Results

  • In 8-yr-olds the main DMFT remained unchanged over the ten-year period with 0.3 DMFT while the percentage of caries free children increased from 80.7% to 86% (table 2, figure 1).
  • In 12-yr-olds caries declined from 2.1 DMFT in 1990 to 0.9 DMFT in 2001.The percentage of caries free children increased from 35% in 1990 to 86.6% in 2001 (table 2, figure 1).
  • In 15-yr-olds a DMFT of 4.3 was revealed in 1990 and of 1.6 in 2001. The percentage of caries free children in 1990 and 2001improved from 19.8 to 48% (table 2, figure 1).
Age group 1990 1995 2001
caries free %
8 80.7 89.0 86.0
12 35.0 50.0 86.6
15 19.8 41.0 48.0
Table 2: Percentage of 8-, 12- and 15-year-olds wihtout caries experience in 1990, 1995 and 2001.

Figure 1: Mean DMFT scores by age groups, with D, M and F components in 1990, 1995 and 2001.
  • Comparing different educational levels, caries prevalence of 12-yr-olds visiting grammar schools (GS) declined from 1.8 to 0.3 DMFT, and from 3.2 to 1.0 DMFT in 15-yr-olds within ten years (table 3, 4). Children visiting secondary modern schools (SMS) showed a declining prevalence from 2.5 to 1.8 DMFT in 12-yr-olds, and from 5.2 to 2.7 DMFT in 15-yr-olds. In students of junior highschools (JHS) the DMFT decreased from 2.2 to 0.8 in 12-yr-olds and from 4.3 to 1.3 DMFT in 15-yr-olds.
Table 3: Mean DMFT by age groups and schooltype in 1990, 1995 and 2001.

  12-yr-olds 15-yr-olds
  SMS JHS GS SMS JHS GS
1990 90 23 171 146 198 140
1995 109 168 115 111 174 120
2001 190 362 203 203 225 201
Table 4: Number of subjects investigated by schooltype.
  • The skewed distribution of caries illustrated by the Lorenz curves showed in 12-yr-olds attending grammar schools that 76% of the DMFT were concentrated in 9% of these children at a cut-off point < 1 DMFT, and in 12-yr-olds at secondary modern schools nearly 85% of the caries affected teeth were concentrated in 30% of the children at a cut-off point > 2 DMFT (figure 2).
Figure 2: Lorenz curves of 12-year-olds attending grammar schools and secondary modern school.

Conclusions

During the last ten years a substantial caries decline was observed in Wetsphalian schoolchildren, but this improvement in oral health differed significantly related to the educational level.

This poster was submitted by Dr. Helga Senkel.

Correspondence address:
Dr. Helga Senkel
Gesundheitsamt Schwelm des Ennepe-Ruhr-Kreises
Hauptstr. 92
58332 Schwelm
Germany